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Endometriosis refers to the condition in which tissues that are usually found in the uterus lining develop in other parts of the body.

This mainly occurs in the abdomen, on the ovaries and falopian tubes, but can occur in other areas such as, but not limited to:

  • Bladder
  • bowel
  • vulva
  • cervix

By Able Health I Medically reviewed by Dr. Alireza Estedlal

Page last reviewed: February 2024 I Next review due: February 2026


Some common symptoms of Endometriosis are:

  • Painful or heavy periods
  • Painful sex
  • Painful urination or bowel movements
  • Blood in stool
  • Infertility
  • Fatigue
  • diarrhoea/constipation


The main causes of endometriosis are still unknown. However, the most common potential causes are thought to be:

  • Retrograde menstruation - In this case, the menstrual blood circulates backward from fallopian tube to the pelvic cavity instead of getting out of the body. As a result the endometrial cells deposit in the uterine lining, then thicken and bleed over time.
  • Hormone transformation- Sometimes hormones cause the cells outside of the womb to transform into similar cells found inside the womb.

Is Endometriosis genetic?

Although the main causes of endometriosis are still unknown, scientists suspect a genetic factor may be involved.


Two main complications of endometriosis are:

  • Infertility- It makes becoming pregnant or conceiving a baby difficult for the patients. Endometriosis can cause a layer of endometrial cells in the falopian tubes to form which may cause a blockage and stop the sperm and egg meeting.
  • Cancer- Endometriosis increases the chance of ovarian cancer.

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Firstly, doctor will carry out physical assessment for diagnosing endometriosis. They may the suggest certain scans such as:

  • Ultrasound
  • MRI
  • Laparoscopy- A thin tube consisting of camera and light for checking the uterus and tissues.
  • Biopsy- On detecting suspicious tissue, doctor may collect some cells to view under a microscope to identify the tissue properly.


Endometriosis treatment comprises of surgical and medicinal methods such as:

  • Anti-inflammatory painkillers
  • Hormone therapy- Such as the contraceptives. This process may reduce the severity of endometriosis, But it will not result in a permanent solution.
  • Fertility treatment
  • Surgery
  • Hysterectomy - This surgical procedure refers to the removal of uterus. Endometriosis can be completely treated by removing ovaries and uterus from the body. It is the ultimate procedure to get rid of pain and stop the growth of endometrial tissues.

When to visit a GP

Endometriosis is real challenge to control. You may need to visit the GP if:

  • You are experiencing any of the symptoms of endometriosis discussed above.